International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn <p><strong>The International Journal of Nursing (IJN) </strong>is a peer reviewed, open access nursing journal devoted to publishing research papers and scholarship about nursing education, health care delivery, organisation, management, workforce, policy and research methods relevant to nursing, midwifery and other health related professions. The IJN aims to provide an international forum for the exchange of ideas and findings from researchers across different cultures and encourages research on the impact of cultural factors on nursing theory and practice. It also seeks to promote the transfer of knowledge between professionals in academia and industry by emphasizing research in which results are of interest or applicable to nursing practices</p> en-US <p>The Copyright Notice entered below will appear in About the Journal and in each published item's metadata. While it is up to the journal to determine the nature of its copyright agreement with authors, the Public Knowledge Project recommends the use of theÂ&nbsp;<a class="action" href="http://creativecommons.org/" target="_new">CREATIVE COMMONS</a> license. To that end, it providesÂ&nbsp;<a class="action" href="/index.php/ijn/information/sampleCopyrightWording" target="_new">SAMPLE COPYRIGHT NOTICE WORDING</a> that can be cut and pasted into the space below for journals that (a) offer open access, (b) offer delayed open access, or (c) do not offer open access.</p> admin@ijnonline.com (International Journal of Nursing (IJN)) admin@ijnonline.com (Administrator) Fri, 30 Dec 2016 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Augmenting Survey Completion and Rates of Returns for Patients with Low Literacy: A Randomized Control Trial of Telephone Follow-up https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/291 <p align="center"><strong>Abstract</strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p><p class="APA"><strong>Aim.</strong> The aim of the study was to determine the best possible means to achieve survey-item completion and high rates of return among low-literacy patients in regard to their perspectives on their health and quality of care post-hospital discharge.</p><p class="APA"><strong>Background.</strong> The Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Survey (HCAHPS) is designed for individuals with a sixth-grade reading level.  One hospital, however, who had mailed the HCAHPS to discharged patients had low return rates and low item completion, which hospital personnel felt were due to low literacy levels.  </p><p class="APA"><strong>Design. </strong>An experimental design was used to conduct this descriptive/comparative study. <strong></strong></p><p class="APAHeadingCenter" align="left"><strong>Methods.  </strong>A total of 286 adult patients with low literacy volunteered to participate in the study.  The survey was disseminated in English or Spanish to individuals with low literacy, using two different modes of dissemination (mailing of the survey or telephone with follow-up reading/clarification of the survey items, if needed) to patients with low literacy who were hospital discharged.</p><p class="APA"><strong>Results. </strong>Participants in the telephone group were 7.4 times more likely to complete the HCAHPS as compared to those who received the HCAHPS by mail.  These telephone participants also were more likely to complete all items compared to those who were mailed the survey.  </p><p class="APA"><strong>Discussion. </strong>Assessing the health literacy of patients is important to ensure that HCAHPS is understood and that the survey is returned and items are completed. Telephone dissemination should be considered for patients with low literacy.  <strong></strong></p><p><strong>Keywords: </strong>health, hospital, literacy, patient perspective, patient satisfaction, quality of care, survey </p> Geraldine Cynthia Fike Copyright (c) 2016 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/291 Sun, 24 Nov 2019 23:37:06 +0000 Constructivism: An Approach in Training Nursing Students in the Clinical Setting. https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/270 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p><p>           Nurses are important in the society because of their soft and caring hands. Because of the changing needs and increase in demand of care, today’s generation nurses are expected to be critically thinking of their own to be effective without depending too much from the other health care team. Educators in the clinical setting have to utilize new teaching innovations that would create proficient nurses.  This paper aims to display that constructivist approach will enable nursing students to deal with complex situations in the hospital through analysis, application, evaluation, and creation; increase motivation and autonomy in nursing care with critical decision making; confirms active construction of knowledge among nursing students using language based on past experiences; enhance communication among students that provide real world examples and will provide them with experience-based learning opportunities to practice.</p><p>           Student nurses are active learners in the clinical area because of their philosophy that their client’s health and well-being depends on their hands. This paper concludes that constructivist approach will create globally competent nursing students and enable them to deal with complex situations in the hospital through analysis, application, evaluation and creation with motivation and autonomy. It is the duty of the educators to enhance that skill by letting them actively construct knowledge using language based on past experiences, then context-rich. This kind of learning strategy will provide learners with experience-based learning opportunities to practice skilled with appropriate decision making process. Let us not waste what students know, instead, we save, preserve and add. Educators need to let these students feel that as early as internship, they are capable and competent in providing quality care. Therefore, guidance is needed and not directives<strong>.</strong></p> Genevive Claire Belen Antonio Copyright (c) 2016 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/270 Sun, 24 Nov 2019 23:01:54 +0000 The Effect of Air mattresses (Total Care P 500®) on Pressure Ulcer Prevalence and Incidence Rates among Adult Post Cardiac Surgical Patients https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/214 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Pressure ulcer development is a common problem worldwide, especially among patients in Intensive Care Units who are at higher risk of skin injury due to several factors such as limited mobility, inadequate skin moisture, illness, and poor nutritional status.</p><p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the effect of a newly introduced air mattress on pressure ulcer development among patients who underwent cardiac surgery in a Cardiac Intensive Care Unit within a tertiary care facility.</p><p><strong>Method:</strong> Quantitative descriptive retrospective observational design was used to describe the effect of air mattresses on the prevalence and incidence of pressure ulcers among adult post-cardiac surgical patients. A convenience sample of patients, who underwent cardiac surgeries, above fourteen years of age, and stayed at least one day in cardiac surgical intensive care unit during a six month period (1<sup>st</sup> April – 1<sup>st</sup> October, 2012) were enrolled in this study. Data was extracted from the patient’s charts and electronic medical records in a retrospective manner. Statistical Package for Social Scientists 20.0 was used to analyze the data.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>Of 224, three patients developed stage two pressure ulcers over the sacral area (1.3%) comparing to 2.76% during the same period in 2011. The prevalence rate was 2.9% comparing to 7.67% reported in 2011. The results showed no statistical significant differences between the patients who developed pressure ulcers and the patients who were free of pressure ulcers. Length of stay and operating time duration were significant predictors for pressure ulcers development (p values, 0.006 and 0.051 respectively).</p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Using air mattresses for cardiac surgical patients might help in reducing the incidence of pressure ulcers in Cardiac Intensive Care Unit. The length of stay and operating time were identified as the main risk factors in pressure ulcer development. Mohammad Asker AL Hawari Copyright (c) 2016 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/214 Sun, 24 Nov 2019 22:38:33 +0000 Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (Act) On Negative Cognition Among Patients with Depression – A Preliminary Analysis https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/484 <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study evaluated the effectiveness of Acceptance &amp; Commitment Therapy (ACT) on negative cognition among Patients with depression</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Sample:&nbsp; 10 subjects having depressive symptoms &amp; receiving treatment (5 experimental + 5 control) were selected using Simple Random Sampling at Spandana hospital Bangalore</p> <p>Measures: The independent variable of this study was Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). The dependent variable was negative cognition. Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ) was used to asses negative cognition.&nbsp;</p> <p>Procedure: On day one, Coin flip method was used to allocate subjects to either Acceptance &amp; Commitment Therapy (ACT) or treatment as usual (TAU) group. Subjects in experimental group (n=10) received six sessions of Acceptance &amp; Commitment Therapy (ACT).&nbsp; Sessions were delivered on one to one basis on alternative days. Each session lasted for 30-45 minutes</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Difference in the post treatment scores between ACT &amp; TAU is statistically significant for Negative cognition (P &lt; 0.00).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> ACT is effective compared to TAU, in reducing negative cognition among patients with depressive symptoms.</p> Chrishma Violla D'Souza Copyright (c) 2016 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/484 Sun, 24 Nov 2019 22:18:40 +0000 Caring Behind Bars: A Phenomenological Study on the Caring Roles of Mothers in Prison https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/174 <p>This research study aimed to identify the caring role experiences of mother inmates in Ilocos Sur Provincial Jail (ISPJ). The study used a phenomenological design. Purposive sampling was used to choose the 7 participants.</p><p>The specific techniques utilized were individual interviews, focus group discussions, and narrative data analysis. The unstructured interviews and focus group discussions were guided by the following question: What are your experiences in caring for your children while you are inside the jail? An unstructured individual interview was conducted to explore more data collected from the focus group discussions. The themes that were identified are reminiscing, letting go, communicating, providing, savoring the moment, getting hurt, and powerlessness.</p><p>The central theme that emerged from the findings is that the mother caring role experiences of inmates is unique. Although behind bars, inmate mothers make ways to fulfill their mother caring role in their own ways.</p><p>Based on the results of the study, the researchers have the following recommendations in order to assist and strengthen the mother caring role of inmates:</p><ol><li>Self-awareness programs for inmate mothers.</li><li>Counseling activities for the mother inmates.</li><li>More programs and activities to promote bonding between the mother inmate and her children.</li><li>The conduct of the same study to father inmates. In addition, the conduct of quantitative research studies on the same topic. </li></ol> Francis Don Langoey Nero Copyright (c) https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/174 Sun, 24 Nov 2019 21:11:01 +0000 An Integrative Review of the Reporting and Underreporting of Workplace Aggression in Healthcare Settings https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/256 <p><strong>Objectives. </strong>Despite the prevalence of workplace aggression, workplace aggression is grossly underreported.  The purpose of this paper is to review the state of the science for the reporting and underreporting of WPA enacted by patients and/or visitors and then make recommendations for increasing the reporting of WPA. </p><p><strong>Design. </strong>An integrative review process was used to select peer-reviewed articles describing the state of the body of evidence for the reporting and underreporting of workplace aggression. </p><p><strong>Data sources.</strong> Articles were extracted from the Scopus database, a robust search engine that simultaneously searches over 20,000 peer-reviewed journals from over 5,000 international publishers.</p><p><strong>Review methods. </strong>Article inclusion criteria were publication date between January 1, 2000 and October 24, 2014, healthcare workers as the study population, and dependent variable related to workplace aggression reporting or workplace aggression underreporting. The initial search yielded 237 citations. All abstracts were read for direct or indirect relevance At the conclusion of this initial review, 33 articles met inclusion criteria. The article reference lists were reviewed and seven additional articles were assessed for inclusion. Twelve articles were retained, read in full, and critiqued. </p><p><strong>Results. </strong>Twelve articles were retained, read in full, and critiqued. The underreporting of workplace aggression was as high as 95%. Reasons for not reporting workplace aggression included perceived lack of organizational change after reporting, violence considered part of the job, and aggression not intentional. Reasons for reporting workplace aggression included workplace aggression that was perceived as intentional, when administrators took action based on incident reports, when the process for reporting was quick, easy, and efficient, when aggression was physical or resulted in an injury. </p><p><strong>Conclusion. </strong>The reporting of workplace aggression is paramount to the future success of prevention interventions. Any changes made to increase the reporting of workplace aggression will require healthcare worker buy-in as well as organizational and administrator support to be effective. </p> Gordon Lee Gillespie, Susie Leming-Lee, Terri Crutcher Copyright (c) 2016 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/256 Sun, 24 Nov 2019 20:59:20 +0000 A Review of the Theoretical Framework of Culture and Value Applied to Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/380 <p>Culture is a unique component of each patient, and nurses are charged with caring for the whole patient while in their care. Cultural competence is an important tool that guides the practice of the nurse while providing care to the patient. Understanding the theory behind culture and the nurses’ cultural competence. The Purnell Model of Cultural Competence (PMCC) is a valid framework to apply to the application of culture and values. As health care in the US is changing, it is important to note the impact that culture plays in health outcomes. This article explores the use of the PMCC to culture and values as it applies to health care. The intent is to provide an overview of the theory, relate the theory to the concepts, discuss the existing research, recommendations from the existing research, and application to future research recommendations.</p> Colleen Marzilli Copyright (c) 2016 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/380 Sun, 24 Nov 2019 19:50:01 +0000 Differences in Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) measures depending on the device used in blood samples drawn (direct Vacutainer® versus Butterfly needle): A Randomized Comparative Study https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/433 <p> </p><p><em>Background</em>. Most laboratory errors occur during the pre-analytical phase and are often related to the blood drawn equipment. No studies have evaluated yet the influence of the most common vein puncture devices on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). We aimed to compare APTT when venous blood samples are drawn with two different needle devices (direct Vacutainer® versus butterfly needle). </p><p class="paragraph"><em>Methods.</em> Consecutive adult healthy volunteers were prospectively enrolled and assigned to receive two antecubital peripheral blood punctures from both arms, using the two devices. The blood drawn sequence (i.e. right or left arm first) and the first device to be used (i.e. direct vacuntainer® or butterfly needle first) were randomly established.</p><p class="Standard"><em>Results.</em> Forty healthy volunteers (mean age 42.9 years; SD 7.5; range 27-58), comprising 25 (62.5%) women, were recruited. APTT obtained with the two blood drawn devices significantly and positive correlated (Spearman rho=0.943; p&lt;0.001). However, mean APTT was significantly more prolonged in blood samples drawn with butterfly needles than in those obtained with direct vacutainer® (34.01 ± 4.4 <em>vs</em>. 33.63 ± 3.8 seconds, respectively; p=0.013). No differences in APTT were found when samples obtained from right and left arms were compared.</p><p class="paragraph"><em>Discussion</em>. The type of blood drawn equipment significantly influences APTT, which is prolonged when a butterfly needle is used. An increased contact time between blood and butterfly tube plastic material would favor a premature consumption of plasma coagulation factors before mixing with anticoagulants in the collection tube.<strong> </strong>The<strong> </strong>appropriately chosen blood drawn device is thus essential to avoid pre-analytical errors.</p><p><strong>KEY WORDS:</strong> Activated partial thromboplastin time, Phlebotomy; Quality control; Blood Specimen Collection; Pre-analytical quality; Laboratory techniques and procedures</p> Ana Belen Friginal, Ángel Arias, Bolívar L. Díaz-Jordán, Ana Rosa López-Quiñones, M José Romero-Pino, Alfredo J Lucendo Copyright (c) 2016 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/433 Sun, 24 Nov 2019 19:32:54 +0000 Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (Act) On Psychological Flexibility Among Patients with Depression – A Preliminary Analysis https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/483 <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study evaluated the effectiveness of Acceptance &amp; Commitment Therapy (ACT) on psychological flexibility among Patients with depression</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> 10 subjects having depressive symptoms &amp; receiving treatment (5 experimental + 5 control) were selected using Simple Random Sampling at Spandana hospital Bangalore Measures: The independent variable of this study was Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). The dependent variable was psychological flexibility, Acceptance &amp; Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II) was used to asses psychological flexibility. Procedure: On day one, Coin flip method was used to allocate subjects to either Acceptance &amp; Commitment Therapy (ACT) or treatment as usual (TAU) group. Subjects in experimental group (n=10) received six sessions of Acceptance &amp; Commitment Therapy (ACT).&nbsp; Sessions were delivered on one to one basis on alternative days. Each session lasted for 30-45 minutes.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Difference in the post treatment scores between ACT &amp; TAU is statistically significant for psychological flexibility (P &lt; 0.00).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> ACT is effective compared to TAU, in improving psychological flexibility among depressive patients</p> Chrishma Violla D'Souza Copyright (c) 2016 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/483 Sun, 24 Nov 2019 19:06:33 +0000 A Mentoring Program: Mentoring the Mentor and Mentee https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/275 <p>Mentoring is a concept that is essential in recruiting and retaining nursing faculty. While a number of nursing programs provide methods for mentoring novice faculty members, the success of such activities may often be determined by the rate of faculty attrition. Expectations, workload, and attrition rate of novice faculty members were the catalysts for developing a program focused on mentoring the mentor and mentee. Previously, mentors functioned in the roles of teacher or resource person, causing the roles of both mentor and mentees to be unclear and without specificity. With a focus on teaching mentors how to be more effective while mentoring the novice faculty members, a Nurse Educator Mentor was assigned to develop and implement the Faculty Mentoring Program. Faculty members who have experience teaching, as well as novice faculty members, are able to transition into their roles easier, thus promoting faculty attrition, productivity, and better outcomes. This article presents a discussion of a successful nursing faculty mentoring program.</p><p><em>Keywords</em>: Nurse Educator Mentor, Faculty Mentoring Program, transition</p><p> </p><p> </p> Debra Jennings Cody, Sue Bingham Copyright (c) 2016 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/275 Sun, 24 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence and correlates of hunger among private aided secondary school children in Bangalore https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/282 <p>Background: Literacy is an indispensable minimum condition for development of India, but it is far from sufficient. The Gross Enrolment Ratio of class I to X is 94.4 per cent and the dropout rate is 52.8%. There are many reasons for school dropouts, Hunger plays a major role. Hence the present report focus on the prevalence and factors associated with hunger among private aided secondary school children in Bangalore. </p><p>Methods: This study involved secondary analysis of data from the PhD research project i.e. Effectiveness of Adolescent Health Education Programme on Health among adolescents, which was conducted from 2010 to 2015 at Bangalore, Karnataka, India to estimate the prevalence of self-reported hunger within the last 30 days among primary and secondary school age group.</p><p>Results: Total of 204 students data were analysed. The overall prevalence of self reported hunger was 14.7%. Results revealed that age, dietary pattern and use of soap for hand washing had significant association with hunger.  </p><p>Conclusion: Hunger among school children is an crucial public health issue in India, which in turn affect the literacy rate, productivity and overall growth of the nation. It is high time for the government and other stake holders to take necessary steps to eradicate hunger from world.</p><p> </p> G Balamurugan, SS Prabhudeva Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/282 Mon, 20 Jul 2015 08:30:46 +0000 State of the art of nursing approach to family in chronic condition in childhood in Brazil https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/192 <p>The present study aimed to increase the knowledge about nursing approach to family in chronic condition in childhood, published in the national literature, and provide subsidies to work in assisting families. This is an integrative literature review with a view to characterizing the production of knowledge. The driving question was “How does Nursing assist the family experiencing chronic condition in childhood?”. The following keywords <em>Nursing</em>, <em>Family</em>, <em>Children</em> and <em>Chronic Condition</em> were used in the research in electronic databases. It was possible to identify the importance of nurses to families for health promotion.</p><p><strong>Key words: </strong>Pediatric nursing, Child, Family, Chronic Diseases</p> Fernanda Lise, Viviane Marten Milbrath, Eda Schwartz Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/192 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 05:15:13 +0000 Concept Analysis: Just Culture https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/177 <p><strong>Title: </strong>Concept Analysis: Just Culture</p><p><strong>Background: </strong>Traditionally, healthcare’s culture has held individuals accountable for all errors or mishaps that befall patients under their care. This punitive approach creates the culture of fear among practitioners that withheld information that is needed to identify faulty systems and create safer ones. As an alternative to this traditional system, application of a model which is widely used in aviation industry known as the Just Culture Model seeks to create an environment that encourages individuals to report mistakes so that the precursors to errors can be better understood in order to fix the system issues (ANA, 2010).</p><p> </p><p><strong>Methods: </strong>This concept analysis that utilized the Walker and Avant method aims to (a) observe the basic elements of the concept under study i.e., defining attributes, antecedents, consequences and empirical referents; (b) develop an operational definition that is meaningful across different discipline and participants that can be easily understood and useful across research, policy and practice; and (c) highlight implications for research of the future.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>Defining Attributes: According to this analysis, the occurrence of a just culture environment involves three main features which include (a) encouragement of error disclosure through open communication; (b) a well-established balanced accountability; and (c) a collaborative learning environment. These attributes reinforces the implicit claim of just culture that it is inevitable for practitioners to commit mistakes that even the most experienced individual is capable of making mistakes. It is also implied in just culture that punishment is not an assurance that workers will not be making mistakes and that perfecting a performance is impossible and can never be sustained.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>   Based on the attributes extracted by this concept analysis, just culture is hereby operationally defined as an environment that reflects a well-established balance accountability supporting collaborative learning that stems from the encouragement of error-disclosure attained through open communication. Having the concept operationally defined and despite the recognized importance of a just culture, not every healthcare institution has adopted this type of approach.</p><p> </p><p>Keyword: concept analysis, just culture, nursing practice, nursing education</p> Bernardo Oliber Jr Alconis Arde Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/177 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 05:14:53 +0000 Chinese Tongue Cancer Survivors’ Perspectives One Year Post-Partial Glossectomy https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/160 <p align="left"><strong>Background: </strong>Tongue cancer is the most common form of oral cancer globally.<strong> </strong>Treatment for tongue cancer has become more effective, but there are heavy functional and aesthetic sequelae that affect quality of life. Assisting patients to attain a satisfactory quality of life post-operatively requires health care providers have an understanding of how these sequelae are perceived by the patients. Little is known about how people in China perceive and manage the sequelae of tongue cancer surgery.</p><p align="left"><strong>Objective: </strong>To understand how people in one province in China perceive and manage the sequelae of surgery for tongue cancer.</p><p align="left"><strong>Population:</strong> Sixteen participants from a provincial hospital in China who had partial glossectomy and free thigh flap reconstruction at a major Chinese cancer center were enrolled in the study. All were men.</p><p align="left"><strong>Methods: </strong>Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants one year following their surgery. Interviews were conducted and transcribed in Mandarin. Analysis was conducted using modified content analysis techniques to identify and describe major categories.</p><p align="left"><strong>Interpretation: </strong>We identified several categories related to functional alterations, appearance changes, social impacts, and management of the sequelae. These include changes in eating, speech, decreased shoulder mobility, facial appearance; the impact of these changes on social activities; and accommodations made such as use of Traditional Chinese Medicine and changes in eating patterns.</p><p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The support of family and friends was important to the recovery process. Adaptations to the treatment sequelae allowed these participants to maintain adequate food intake, resume some daily activity, and manage discomfort. Physical therapy may alleviate shoulder weakness and numbness post-surgery.</p> Yanhui Zhou, Yanqun Li, Xiao Zhou, Jianjun Yu, Li Li, Caiyun Ouyang, Zan Li, Mei Gu, Elisabeth M. Hicks, Sally L. Maliski Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/160 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 05:14:33 +0000 A Qualitative Study Identifying Motivators, Facilitators, and Barriers to Tobacco Cessation in Older Adults https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/187 <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;"><strong>Background: </strong>Tobacco use is the single largest preventable cause of premature death and disease in the world and in the United States and is associated with diseases of nearly every organ system.</span> <span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">Tobacco cessation is considered the single most important factor to improve the health of older adults who use tobacco. However, minimal research has focused on the process of tobacco cessation or factors influencing this process.</span></span></p><p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;"><strong>Purpose: </strong>This qualitative study aimed to identify motivators, facilitators, and barriers to tobacco cessation and prolonged cessation in older adults aged 50 years and older. </span></span></p><p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;"><strong>Design and Methods: </strong>This qualitative research study explored tobacco cessation in community dwelling older adults after receiving Institutional Review Board approval. The Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change was the conceptual framework used to guide this study. Snowball sampling was used to recruit 20 older adults who had ceased using tobacco products for one year or more and remained tobacco free. Semi-structured audio-recorded interviews were conducted in each participant’s home. Data were analyzed using content analysis and constant comparison techniques. Demographic data were described using descriptive statistics. </span></span></p><p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;"><strong>Results: </strong>Participants were from three southern states and included 11 males and nine females with 18 Caucasian and two African American. The average age of participants at the time of the interview was 71.5 years, and the average quitting age was 60.5 years. Four global themes related to tobacco cessation in older adults emerged from the analysis: (a) motivators, (b) facilitators, (c) barriers, and (d) life after tobacco. These older adults attribute their successful tobacco cessation to self-motivation, accountability to self and others, and finding replacements for tobacco. Barriers to tobacco cessation included tobacco triggers/temptations and addiction/withdrawal symptoms. Participants described themselves as proud, strong, and independent after quitting.</span></span></p><p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;"><strong>Conclusion: </strong><a href="http://www.buletinlokal.com">Information</a> gained from older adults who have ceased using tobacco products can be used to develop tobacco cessation interventions that health care providers can use to assist older patients who desire to quit.</span></span></p> Lana M. Brown Copyright (c) 2015 https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/187 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 05:11:14 +0000 A Baseline Assessment Survey on Cultural Competency among Expatriate Nurses in Saudi Arabia https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/180 <p align="center"><strong>Abstract</strong></p><p><em>The culture of Saudi Arabia is dominated by the values and virtues of Islam. </em><em>Its increasing multicultural population of health care workers poses a significant challenge in providing individualized and holistic care to their patients.</em><em> </em><em>This descriptive study served as a baseline assessment survey to determine the level of competence among expatriate nurses in providing culturally competent nursing care. The Individual Assessment of Cultural Competence, with approval from the Institution Review Board (IRB), was administered to 584 expatriate nurses of a University Hospital in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The findings of the study showed that majority of the respondents were Indians and Filipinos, with a frequency percentage of 53% and 39%, respectively. They were culturally competent in providing nursing care and there was significant difference in their cultural competency when grouped according to their age, gender, educational status, nationality and length of service. The university hospital, recognizes the importance of cultural competence in the caring professions with the presence of diverse workforce. Hence, professional development programs are continually conducted to provide the nursing staff with the needed information primarily about Saudi culture. </em></p> ERGIE PEPITO INOCIAN Copyright (c) 2015 https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/180 Tue, 23 Jun 2015 05:10:25 +0000 Evidence-based practice project to increase hospital-based cervical cancer screening compliance among registration staff https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/193 <strong>Background:</strong> High-quality Papanicolaou testing was developed in the 1940s, and when used for early detection of cervical cancer, has been shown to significantly reduce cervical cancer related deaths world-wide. Legislation, passed by many states in the United States, aims to maximize cervical cancer screening. One academic medical center (AMC) in Maryland initiated a cervical cancer screening program in 1977. A pilot, developed to assess cervical cancer screening compliance, found the screening rate at this AMC to be 51%. <strong></strong><p><strong>Objective:</strong> This project aimed to improve the knowledge of the patient service coordinators in order to increase cervical cancer screening compliance.</p><p><strong>Population:</strong> Patient service coordinator conducts registration and screening when a patient is admitted to the AMC<strong></strong></p><p><strong>Methods</strong>: Effectiveness of the education was measured by three assessments: 1) A pre and post knowledge survey of the patient service coordinator measuring facts about cervical cancer, the screening process, and the State of Maryland cervical cancer screening mandate; 2) a calculation of screening rates comparing the number of women screened to the number of women admitted; and 3) an assessment of the completeness of each screening form.<strong></strong></p><p><strong>Results</strong>:<strong> </strong>A two-tailed paired samples <em>t</em>-test revealed that the PSCs scored higher on the post-survey (<em>m</em>-7.68, <em>s</em>- 2.52) compared to the pre-survey (<em>m</em>-3.68, <em>s</em>-1.77), <em>t </em>(32) = 8.949, p ≤ .0.5. A chi- square test was used to compare categorical variables. During the four weeks before the educational intervention, 34% (543 of 1602) of women were screened; 51% (279/543) screening forms were completed. For the four weeks after the educational intervention, 54% (N=735 of 1,373) of eligible women were screened; 89% (656/735) forms were completed. Both tests were found to be significant p &lt;0.000.</p><p><strong>Interpretation:</strong> There was a significant improvement of the PSC’s knowledge, 20% increase in the number of women screened, and completeness of the form increased by 38%.<strong></strong></p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> These findings suggest that an educational intervention for registration staff can increase cervical cancer screening compliance, and positively impact staff ability to screen inpatient women.</p> Lynn Richards-McDonald Copyright (c) 2015 https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/193 Wed, 17 Jun 2015 04:31:42 +0000 Nursing Student Engagement: Student, Classroom, and Clinical Engagement https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/195 <p>A nursing student’s level of engagement is extremely important. Their engagement efforts impact their current and future learning, their clinical care interactions, and ultimately, ongoing retention within the nursing profession. The <em>level</em> of engagement with the nursing role and responsibilities will contribute toward the patients’ quality of healing. Interventions toward wellness, provided with engagement, create nurturing and supportive caring. Student education must facilitate engagement by being relevant and evidence-based. The current concept of student engagement is outlined in the following sections: engagement definitions, nursing student engagement, classroom engagement, and clinical engagement.</p><p>An up-to-date literature review of student nurses’ engagement in learning is presented; gaps in the literature are identified. Engagement is not a new teaching strategy, however, it has recently become extremely popular and effective as traditional lectured education is becoming replaced by this more active and participatory teaching and learning methods.</p> Kathleen F. Hudson Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/195 Wed, 17 Jun 2015 04:30:13 +0000 Synthesizing Preliminary Normative Values for the Hong Kong Brief Version of World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale: A Review of Published Studies 1997 - 2014 https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/231 <p><span style="font-family: 新細明體;"><em><strong><span style="font-size: medium;">Objective</span></strong></em><em><strong><span style="font-size: medium;">.</span></strong></em><em></em></span><span style="font-size: medium;">To </span><span style="font-size: medium;">synthesize</span><span style="font-size: medium;">preliminary </span><span style="font-size: medium;">normative values from published data of the Hong Kong version of World Health Organization</span><span style="font-size: medium;">Quality of life scale–brief version (WHOQOL-BREF-HK)</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> and to identify areas for nursing attention and further research.</span></p><p><span style="font-family: Calibri;"><em><strong><span style="font-size: medium;">Design</span></strong></em><em><strong><span style="font-size: medium;">.</span></strong></em><em><span style="font-size: medium;"> A </span></em></span><span style="font-size: medium;">literature</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> review. </span></p><p><span style="font-family: Calibri;"><em><strong><span style="font-size: medium;">Data sources</span></strong></em><em><strong><span style="font-size: medium;">.</span></strong></em><em></em></span><span style="font-size: medium;">The literature </span><span style="font-size: medium;">search was perfo</span><span style="font-size: medium;">r</span><span style="font-size: medium;">med from January 1997 to </span><span style="font-size: medium;">December</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> 2014. </span><span style="font-size: medium;">Keywords including WHOQOL-BREF-HK, Quality of life, Brief, Scale, and Hong Kong Chinese were used to search the following electronic data bases: Journals @ Ovid Full Text, EBM Reviews, EMBase, PsycInfo, DARE and Ovid Medline. In addition, hand searching of the reference lists of retrieved articles was performed.</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> </span></p><p><span style="font-family: Calibri;"><em><strong><span style="font-size: medium;">Review methods</span></strong></em><em><strong><span style="font-size: medium;">.</span></strong></em><em><strong></strong></em></span><span style="font-size: medium;">Studies were selected when they adopted the WHOQOL-BREF-HK as a measurement. The scale has four domains. Studies with incomplete domain data were excluded. The </span><span style="font-size: medium;">WHOQOL-BREF-HK</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> data were extracted from the selected studies by one of the authors independently and checked by the other author to ensure accuracy. The extracted data, presented in raw score, are considered as the preliminary normative values.</span></p><p><span style="font-family: Calibri;"><em><strong><span style="font-size: medium;">Results</span></strong></em><em><strong><span style="font-size: medium;">.</span></strong></em><em></em></span><span style="font-size: medium;">The </span><span style="font-size: medium;">twenty-three</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> studies selected </span><span style="font-size: medium;">for the review </span><span style="font-size: medium;">included </span><span style="font-size: medium;">3,480</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> subjects</span><span style="font-size: medium;">(mean age </span><span style="font-size: medium;">ranged from </span><span style="font-size: medium;">31</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> to </span><span style="font-size: medium;">76 years). </span><span style="font-size: medium;">The preliminary n</span><span style="font-size: medium;">ormative values</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> were </span><span style="font-size: medium;">displayed in a</span><span style="font-size: medium;">table to show the mean score of the four domains of the WHOQOL-BREF-HK of each study by subject classifications</span><span style="font-size: medium;">(subject characteristics, sample size, mean age, </span><span style="font-size: medium;">percentage of </span><span style="font-size: medium;">female</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> subjects</span><span style="font-size: medium;">), and by three </span><span style="font-size: medium;">categories</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> of people (well, sick and</span><span style="font-size: medium;">those with specific life events). </span><span style="font-size: medium;">Our synthesis shows some interesting trends, including </span><span style="font-size: medium;">people with schizophrenia tend to have the poorest </span><span style="font-size: medium;">quality of life</span><span style="font-size: medium;">, </span><span style="font-size: medium;">and </span><span style="font-size: medium;">sick people after</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> completing</span><span style="font-size: medium;">a course of </span><span style="font-size: medium;">treatment with a possible remission tend to achieve </span><span style="font-size: medium;">quality of life</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> similar to well people. </span><span style="font-size: medium;">These trends deserve nursing attention and further research with a population-based sample.</span><em><span style="font-size: medium;"> </span></em></p><p><em><strong><span style="font-family: Calibri; font-size: medium;">Conclusions</span></strong></em><strong><em><span style="font-size: medium;">.</span></em></strong><strong><em></em></strong><span style="font-size: medium;">Given that population-based normative data for WHOQOL-BREF-HK are unavailable, </span><span style="font-size: medium;">the</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> values </span><span style="font-size: medium;">presented in this study, although limited by not using methodological recommendations for normatization of quality of life instruments, </span><span style="font-size: medium;">offer a </span><span style="font-size: medium;">preliminary and helpful source</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> for cross references for Chinese people living in Hong Kong. Our</span><span style="font-size: medium;">findings</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> also</span><span style="font-size: medium;"> provide pointers for further research</span><span style="font-size: medium;">, and </span><span style="font-size: medium;">help nurses to make better decisions in </span><span style="font-size: medium;">clinical </span><span style="font-size: medium;">practic</span><span style="font-size: medium;">e.</span></p> Suk-ming Yeung, Ann TY Shiu Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/231 Wed, 17 Jun 2015 04:29:33 +0000 Multifactor examination of nursing job satisfaction: a cross sectional survey in a tertiary hospital, Qatar https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/247 <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: This study examined overall job satisfaction among nurses in a tertiary hospital setting in order to understand the relationship between job satisfaction in terms of four dimensions: autonomy, work environment, incentives, and perception of quality of patient care.</p><p><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross sectional study of 435 nurses at Rumailah Hospital, Doha, Qatar was conducted using a validated Nursing Work Index-Revised questionnaire. Stepwise multiple linear regression was conducted to examine predictors of nursing job satisfaction.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>: The study included 435 respondents, 68.2% of whom were hired from abroad. Mean age of respondents was 38.42±8.96. Most were female (87.1%), educated to degree level (50.6%), were married (84.5%), and work at the staff nurse level (84.1%). A majority (65.8%) of respondents had over five years of experience at current job. Overall, a greater proportion of respondents (53.3%) rated satisfaction with current job above 5, on a 10 point scale. Nurses from abroad tended to have higher ratings of job satisfaction compared to locals. There was no statistically significant difference in mean job satisfaction score by practice area (t=4.467, p =.0.139).</p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Expat Nurses tended to rate job satisfaction higher than those hired locally. Incentives (including financial and non-financial benefits) was a significant predictor of nursing job satisfaction. Autonomy and contract type were additional statistically significant predictors of job satisfaction, after adjusting for confounders.  </p> Badriya Khalifa Al Shamari, Johncy Paulose, Christine Ou, Emmanuel Ngwakongnwi Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/247 Wed, 17 Jun 2015 04:28:51 +0000 Caring for the chronically ill patient: understanding how fear leads to activity avoidance in individuals with chronic respiratory disease. https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/93 The likelihood of taking preventative health actions, such as engagement in physical activity, is affected by individual motivation along with the perceived threat of existing disease. Chronic respiratory disease enhances perceived threat of activity-induced dyspnea and alters the perception of barriers to preventative action. This leads to decreased likelihood of taking the recommended positive health action and engaging in physical activity. Resulting behavior instead is focused on avoidance of disease exacerbation in the form of activity avoidance. Sarah Miller Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/93 Mon, 02 Feb 2015 22:54:56 +0000 FAMILY SUPPORT NEEDED FOR ADOLESCENT WHEN PUBERTY PERIOD https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/74 <span class="hps"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Cambria; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;">Adolescents</span></span><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Cambria; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;"> <span class="hps">during their</span> <span class="hps">puberty</span> <span class="hps">will</span> <span class="hps">experience many</span> <span class="hps">physical and psychological changes</span> <span class="hps">that are</span> <span class="hps">very</span> <span class="hps">fast</span>. <span class="hps">Physical changes</span> <span class="hps">of puberty</span> <span class="hps">teens</span> <span class="hps">give effect to</span> <span class="hps">changes in</span> <span class="hps">psychological</span> <span class="hps">and social</span>. <span class="hps">Shape</span> <span class="hps">changes that</span> <span class="hps">accompany</span> <span class="hps">puberty</span> <span class="hps">include</span> <span class="hps">changes in</span> <span class="hps">cognitive</span>, <span class="hps">moral</span>, emotional, social <span class="hps">as a</span> <span class="hps">form of</span> <span class="hps">self-</span>development of <span class="hps">adolescents</span>. <span class="hps">Families</span> <span class="hps">have</span> <span class="hps">an important role</span> <span class="hps">to</span> <span class="hps">help</span> <span class="hps">youth</span> <span class="hps">grow</span> <span class="hps">and</span> <span class="hps">develop normally</span> <span class="hps">during puberty</span>. <span class="hps">Reality on the ground</span> <span class="hps">are still</span> <span class="hps">many families</span> <span class="hps">that have not been</span> <span class="hps">able</span> <span class="hps">fully</span> <span class="hps">to</span> <span class="hps">implement the</span> <span class="hps">family support</span> <span class="hps">to</span> <span class="hps">adolescents</span> <span class="hps">undergoing</span> <span class="hps">puberty</span>. <span class="hps">The purpose</span> <span class="hps">of this study</span> <span class="hps">to</span> <span class="hps">obtain</span> <span class="hps">the necessary</span> <span class="hps">family</span> <span class="hps">support</span> <span class="hps">during their</span> <span class="hps">teenage</span> <span class="hps">puberty</span>. <span class="hps">The design</span> <span class="hps">study is a</span> <span class="hps">qualitative</span> <span class="hps">phenomenology</span>. <span class="hps">Researchers conducted</span> <span class="hps">in-depth</span> <span class="hps">interviews</span> <span class="hps">of</span> <span class="hps">adolescent</span> <span class="hps">puberty</span>. <span class="hps">Data analysis</span> <span class="hps">using</span> <span class="hps">Colaizzi</span> <span class="hps">method</span>. <span class="hps">The first theme</span> <span class="hps">is the role</span> <span class="hps">of</span> <span class="hps">perceived</span> <span class="hps">family (support,</span> <span class="hps">negative</span> <span class="hps">attitudes</span> <span class="hps">and rules)</span>. <span class="hps">The second theme</span> is <span class="hps">the expected</span> <span class="hps">behavior of</span> <span class="hps">adolescent</span> <span class="hps">family</span> <span class="hps">(needed</span>, <span class="hps">considered,</span> <span class="hps">understood</span>, <span class="hps">satisfied,</span> <span class="hps">given</span> <span class="hps">the right to</span> <span class="hps">argue</span>, <span class="hps">improved</span> <span class="hps">communication</span>, <span class="hps">allowed to play</span>, <span class="hps">directed</span> <span class="hps">and</span> <span class="hps">controlled)</span>. <span class="hps">Researchers</span> <span class="hps">suggest</span> <span class="hps">the formation of</span> <span class="hps">adolescent</span> <span class="hps">peer</span> <span class="hps">counselor</span>, <span class="hps">clinical</span> <span class="hps">consultation</span> <span class="hps">and</span> <span class="hps">promotion family support for adolescent</span></span> Endang Triyanto Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/74 Mon, 02 Feb 2015 22:54:18 +0000 Understanding the Experience of stress on initiation of Haemodialysis: A Phenomenological Study https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/230 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Research evidence on stress among chronic kidney disease/end stage renal disease patients in India is sparse. Experience of stress is a subjective phenomenon. Hence qualitative research methodology helps to gain real insight about factors that cause stress among haemodialysis patients. The objective of this study was to understand the stressors experienced by patients on initiation of haemodialysis treatment.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> A phenomenological approach was used to gain insight into the lived experience of stressors experienced by patients’ on haemodialysis treatment. The study was conducted in outpatient haemodialysis units of two private hospitals in Bangalore, India. Participants of the study consisted of six males and four females who were on haemodialysis for between 2 months to 36 months. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with all participants. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim .</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Three main themes emerged namely ‘Physical stress- ors’, ‘psychological stressors’ and ‘Socioeconomic stressors’. Pain, tiredness and loss of appetite were the predominant physical stressors reported by participants. Shock and depression on diagnosis and initiation of dialysis, difficulty adhering to prescribed therapeutic regimen, feeling of being burden on family, fear of complications and uncertainty about life were the psychological stressors reported by participants. A range of socioeconomic stressors were reported by the participants which included; Loss of employment, financial problems, loss of ability to perform activities of daily living and limited social life.</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Findings of this study can be utilized to design a pre-haemodialysis preparatory program which can be implemented for stage-4 chronic kidney disease patients to prepare them for haemodialysis.</p><p> </p> Jadhav Sonali Tarachand, Premila Lee Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/230 Thu, 29 Jan 2015 00:21:50 +0000 Letter to Editor: Response to the topic “Nursing Shortage: A Comparative Analysis” https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/229 <p>Dear editor:</p><p>I am writing this letter in response to article “Nursing Shortage: A Comparative Analysis” which made me think about the similar situation of my country. I am from Nepal, a developing country which is facing the nursing shortage as you have mentioned in the article. If you ask a nursing student in my country, what are you going to do after graduating? Most of those answers would be going abroad for bachelor or masters. Here, doing bachelor or masters means they want to get blended with the students of the respective country for licensure and degree equivalence so that they could easily get a permanent visa of that country. As you have mentioned in your article about Philippines that they are educating more nurses than they need, we have a same situation in my country too.</p><p>The number of nursing college is increasing so is the number of nurses. There is less demand and more supply of nurses to the health care system. Another major problem we are facing is due to political instability, the governing bodies are malfunctioning which affects the quality of education provided to our nurses, resulting in quality of care they provide to their patients.</p><p>The real problem actually starts after graduation. Nurses are not able to find jobs. They are asked about their experience, which new nurses would not have. Nowadays there is a trend of volunteering by nurses, which are forced by hospital administrations so that the nurses could get a job in that hospital. Poor Nurses could only see their option of moving abroad and have a better life.</p><p>The most important reason of moving to develop countries is the money. Nepalese nurses hardly make</p><p>$250 a month, which makes you difficult to survive in the country. Even if you have a bachelor or masters de-</p><p>gree you would be making about $300 comparing the USA nurse making $60, 000 a year. This situation makes the nurses in my country very motivated and they want to try everything possible to go to developed countries and have a fascinated lifestyle.</p> Sharma DW Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/229 Wed, 28 Jan 2015 23:31:52 +0000 Being engaged: The multiple interactions between job demands and job resources and its impact on nurses engagement https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/155 <p>This study has been inspired by  the job-demands resource model. It evaluates the role that job resources play in moderating the impact that job demands have on work engagement in a community of nurses. A total of 481 nurses in 109 health care centers participated in this study. Three job demands: work overload, emotional demands, and home-work imbalance; and three specific job resources: social support, autonomy, and self-development opportunities were used to test the interaction hypotheses of this research. Results show that 33 out of 36 of the possible interaction effects were significant, thus showing that job resources create a buffer between job demands and work engagement and its three dimensions in nurses. By and large,   hypotheses were confirmed. Research and practical implications are discussed. </p> Rachel Gabel-Shemueli, Simon Landau Dolan, Adriana Suárez Ceretti Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/155 Wed, 28 Jan 2015 23:25:53 +0000 Gender differences in population-based prevalences of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in Chile: are men being under-diagnosed? https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/141 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the biggest killer worldwide. Chile has a long standing CVD preventive system, but no gender-focused study has been conducted so far. The purpose of this study was to analyse the existence of gender differences in the prevalence of CVD in Chile. This was a secondary analysis of the cross-sectional Chilean Health Survey 2009- 2010, including 5277 adult participants. </p><p><strong>Method:</strong> The relationship between CVDs and gender, crude and adjusted by potential confounders, were estimated by weighted Poisson regressions.</p><p><strong>Results and discussion:</strong> Crude overall prevalence of self-reported hypertension was 28.13% and it was significantly lower in men (10.92%) than women (17.20%). Half of the population were overweight/obese (39.20%/22.92%) and alcohol consumption in the past month was high (58.42%). Around 40.19% currently smoke. Gender was significantly associated with hypertensions (PR 1.58, 95% CI [1.23-2.03]) as well as having public healthcare insurance (PR1.45, 95% CI [1.01-2.10]).</p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The results suggest that men reported hypertension less often than women, but comparisons with objective measures suggested they were under-diagnosed. These discrepancies need further consideration in preventive programmes and gender-focused policies in Chile. Nurses and other health professionals are key in creating, implementing and evaluating novel recruitment strategies for men.</p> Corinna Dressler, Báltica Cabieses Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/141 Wed, 28 Jan 2015 23:25:20 +0000 How Healthcare Providers Manage Intensive Care Patients’ Stressors? https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/130 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> This manuscript reports the qualitative findings of a mixed methods research study conducted in December.2012. This manuscript focus on describing how health care providers managed their patient’s stressors in the intensive care units (ICU).</p><p><strong>Background:</strong> Approximately 4.4 million patients require intensive care unit (ICU) treatment annually in the United States (National Quality Measures Clearing House, 2012).No specific protocol is present to guide the health care providers in managing their ICU patients' stressors. There is a need to investigate how health care providers manage their patients stress.</p><p><strong>Methodology: </strong> Mixed methods research design was used. Phenomenological approach was used for the qualitative section. The sample included 70 ICU health care providers. The researcher developed a paper based tool that asked participants about their demographic data, and asked open ended questions investigated how health care providers managed their patient's stressors. Consent forms were signed voluntarily by all participants; all ethical considerations were guaranteed in this study. This study was conducted in one of the large hospitals in southern California that have 46 ICU beds.</p><p><strong>Findings:</strong> Health care providers reported that they manage their ICU patient's stressors by implementing four themes of practice: Communication, pain management, encouraging the presence of family, and environmental control. Those were the major strategies in health care providers' management of patients' stressors. Study implications: ICU staff can manipulate the ICU environment to be less stressful; the findings of this study could guide the development of ICU patients stress management protocol.</p> Alham Abuatiq Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/130 Wed, 28 Jan 2015 23:24:58 +0000 Examining demographic and psychosocial predictors of well-being in older pet owners https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/108 <p>Background: Worldwide, older adults represent a significant proportion of the total population. Due to the international increase in the numbers of aging adults over the next several decades, it is important for nurses to assist this populace in aspects of healthy aging. There are known indicators of well-being both positive and negative that influence aging.</p><p>Objective: The objective of this study was to examine seven models consisting of demographic and psychosocial predictors of well-being among older adults.</p><p>Population: This quantitative descriptive design included 209 older pet-owning adults whose age ranged from 48 to 93 (<em>M </em>= 71.66; <em>SD</em> 9.14). The participants were recruited from senior housing facilities designed for older adults or attended a senior citizen community center.</p><p>Methods: Participants completed a demographics form and a loneliness, pet attachment, social support, and well-being scale. Demographic and psychosocial predictors of well-being were examined using hierarchical regression analysis (<em>p</em> <span style="text-decoration: underline;">&lt;</span> .05).</p><p>Results: The results revealed that age, gender, education, health, loneliness due to the loss, pet type, loneliness, social support, and pet attachment were significant predictors.</p><p>Interpretation: Older adults are at risk for less than optimal well-being due to situational factors such as loneliness and alternations in social support due to natural life transitions. Since well-being is a multidimensional construct that affects the world’s people it is important for nurses to investigate its components.</p><p>Conclusion: Internationally, nursing is focused on maintaining positive health and well-being throughout the lifespan. The findings supported both positive and negative components influence well-being. Appropriate interventions should be selected based on positive or negative predictors. Implications for clinical application are discussed.</p> Cheryl A. Krause-Parello, Elsie Gulick Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/108 Wed, 28 Jan 2015 23:24:30 +0000 The Evolution of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/104 <p>Everything in this universe is subject to countless refurbishes. The modifications are invariably met for the development of a certain ideology or substance. This is just one of the many explanations why “there is nothing constant in this world, but change.”</p><p>           In the field of nursing, various principles are being undertaken, and it is but right for us, nurses to develop innumerable revisions to attain precision, thereby improving our Health Care Delivery System to our clients seeking for medical and nursing care.</p><p>           Nursing is not a static, unchanging profession but it is continuously growing and evolving as society changes, as health care emphases and methods change, as lifestyle change – and as nurses, themselves change (Potter &amp; Perry, 2005). In this article, one will be able to apprise himself/herself with the up-to-date trends in the field of nursing specifically on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.</p> Carlo Paul Sana Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Nursing https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/104 Wed, 28 Jan 2015 23:24:09 +0000 A Descriptive Study to Assess Barriers to Screening for Domestic Violence Among Public Health Nurses https://www.ijnonline.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/89 <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:OfficeDocumentSettings> <o:RelyOnVML/> <o:AllowPNG/> </o:OfficeDocumentSettings> </xml><![endif]--><p class="MsoNormal" style="line-height: normal;"><span style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;"><span style="mso-spacerun: yes;"> </span>Domestic violence is a public health issue and public health nurses are in the best position to track it, provided they can overcome certain screening barriers. This study aimed to identify the main barriers public health nurses face while screening patients for domestic abuse. A quantitative, descriptive survey was distributed to public health nurses stationed </span>in three regional public health offices in a large, urban county in Northern California. Thirty-two nurses responded to the survey. Pender’s Health Promotion Model was utilized as a theoretical framework <span style="mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;">to test and improve nurses’ screening skills by identifying perceived barriers to action and by assessing situational influences. The study results showed three main identified barriers among public health nurses to be a lack of privacy, negative feelings and attitudes regarding screening, and a lack of time. By providing in-service training, educational materials, and accessible computer applications, public health departments can help nurses overcome these barriers. Key words:<strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal;"> </strong>Barriers; Domestic Violence; Public Health Nurses; Screening.</span></p><p class="APACenteredText" style="text-align: left; line-height: normal;" align="left"><strong style="mso-bidi-font-weight: normal;"> </strong></p><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:TrackMoves/> <w:TrackFormatting/> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:DoNotPromoteQF/> <w:LidThemeOther>EN-US</w:LidThemeOther> <w:LidThemeAsian>ZH-TW</w:LidThemeAsian> <w:LidThemeComplexScript>X-NONE</w:LidThemeComplexScript> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables/> <w:SnapToGridInCell/> <w:WrapTextWithPunct/> <w:UseAsianBreakRules/> <w:DontGrowAutofit/> <w:SplitPgBreakAndParaMark/> <w:DontVertAlignCellWithSp/> 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